Keith Kelly provides a comprehensive lesson plan, with both a language and content focus, accompanied by a list of verbs and nouns associated with change and interaction from the area of geography.

To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.

Predictions and expectations about change

expect The company made profits last year and expects to increase profits by 20% next year.
predict It is predicted that the world’s supply of oil could be used up by the end of the 21st century.

Positive and negative growth and change

bring (growth) The TGV has brought new growth and prosperity to many French cities.
change Natural vegetation of very few areas of the world remains unchanged.
decline The price of coffee beans has declined in recent years.
develop A medieval town developed inside the defensive walls.
enlarge Rural to urban migration greatly enlarged the population of the city.
expand Long-established coastal towns have expanded and grown into dormitory towns.
fall Air falls and is compressed (squeezed) and heated.
grow Europe’s population grew rapidly due to better food supplies and improved medicine.
improve Food production improves due to modern machinery, which increases the supply of food and leads to a healthier population.
maintain Water is needed to maintain human life.
remain Few young people remain, leading to fewer marriages and lower birth rates.
rise As land temperatures rise, the polar ice caps melt.
spread Over time, the practice of living in large settlements has spread throughout the world.
swell Grooves in the skin allow the cactus to swell like a concertina during rainfall.


change What changes have occurred in Calcutta’s appearance because of lack of development in the last century?
decrease Write two reasons for the decrease in fish caught in the last twenty years.
enlargement The enlargement of the European Union has caused large-scale migration.
explosion The world’s population grew so fast in the 21st century that it was called a population explosion.
growth Most population growth is taking place in the poorest and least prepared countries.
increase Large increases in animal numbers to feed the world’s population is producing excess methane gas which is also trapping heat.
rise Melting polar ice caps cause a rise in sea levels.

Refer to Your CLIL: Line graphs: Geography for a range of adjective and adverb phrases for describing growth and change.

Patterns of interaction and distribution

arrange Small villages are arranged in circular patterns and joined to towns by radial roads.
disperse Some plants make use of water to disperse their seeds.
distribute A ’settlement pattern’ refers to the way settlements are distributed or arranged in an area.
scatter Genetic research has uncovered the history of Pygmy tribes scattered across western and central Africa.


connection Explain the connection between clean water supplies and population growth.
distribution Several factors influence location and distribution of settlements over space.
interaction Soil is produced by the interaction of weathering, vegetation, erosion, climate and people.
pattern Satellite photographs are used to predict and study weather patterns.

Describing outcome

become Large cities grew up around coalfield areas and Britain became the first industrialized nation in the world.
get Salmon get weaker and slower as they approach their spawning time.
give rise to Flat land, rich soil, plentiful rainfall and summer heat give rise to prosperous agriculture.
lead to Tourism may lead to the development of transport and communication links.

Refer to Your CLIL: Cause and effect: Geography for more suggestions and examples on ’outcomes’.

Describing circumstances / conditions for change

allow Newly formed rock cracks to allow magma upwards to repeat an endless cycle.
encourage Steep slopes encourage fast-moving debris.
preserve Urban renewal aims to preserve inner city communities and upgrade their environments.
prevent Restricted profits prevent countries and people from improving their living standards.
provide The invention of the steam engine provided widespread employment in European coalfields.


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Change: Geography: Lesson plan.


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