Keith Kelly provides a comprehensive lesson plan, with both a language and content focus, accompanied by a list of verbs and nouns associated with change and interaction from the area of science.

To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.

Predictions and expectations about change

expect If you blow on a mirror, what would you expect to happen and why?
predict The difference between dry and wet temperature readings each day can be used to predict the humidity of each day.

Positive and negative growth and change

adapt There are three molars behind the premolars adapted for crushing and grinding foods.
change Methylated spirit needs heat energy to change from a liquid to a vapour state.
decrease When going up in an aeroplane, the atmospheric pressure outside the ear decreases.
develop Pneumonia sometimes develops from a simple viral cold or influenza.
enlarge When the object is inside the focal length of the convex lens, it forms an upright image that
is enlarged.
evolve Cacti have evolved to cope with desert conditions.
expand / contract The bulb of the thermometer is filled with a liquid that expands when it is heated and contracts when it cools.
grow Fungi have tiny threads that grow on food, often forming a mould.
increase The air pressure outside the ear increases and causes the eardrum to bulge inwards.
keep Homeostasis means keeping the internal environment of the body constant.
remain An object remains stable when a line through its centre of gravity falls within its base.
spread When a parallel beam of light passes through a concave lens it causes the rays to
spread apart.
swell Egg placed in pure water takes in water by osmosis and swells, whilst egg placed in brine loses water by osmosis and becomes shrivelled.


adaptation Seeds are dispersed using different methods, depending on the adaptations of
the fruit.
change The blood transports hormones to target organs where they stimulate
specific changes.
compression / expansion Liquefaction involves the compression and expansion of gas, which causes the expansion temperature to decrease so that the gases change to liquid.
decrease How will a decrease in voltage affect current flow through a circuit?
development What conditions affect the growth and development of micro-organisms in an environment?
enlargement Emphysema is the abnormal enlargement of alveoli, causing the lungs to
lose elasticity.
explosion The violent explosion of most cinder cone volcanoes results in a bowl-shaped crater.
growth Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs.
increase The mercury thread travels up the capillary tube with a small increase
in temperature.

Refer to Your CLIL: Line graphs: Science for a range of adjective and adverb phrases for describing growth and change.

Patterns of interaction and distribution

arrange The vascular bundles in a stem of a dicotyledonous plant are arranged in a ring.
connect A rhizome is directly connected to the stem of the parent plant.
disperse When white light refracts as it passes through a prism, it disperses into a spectrum of colours.
distribute Diffusion is the movement of liquid or gas particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until particles are evenly distributed.
scatter Some dried fruits suddenly burst open, scattering their seeds.
transfer Solids transfer heat by conduction and liquids and gases transfer heat by convection.


behaviour A response to stimuli is usually an action, such as a movement or change in behaviour.
dispersal Seeds adapted for wind dispersal are able to move through the air over long distances.
distribution Describe the distribution of the dye in the water after a period of two hours.
explosion The sudden explosion scatters the seeds over a wide area.
interaction Interaction where one action produces another action, which then inhibits the first action, is called a feedback mechanism.
pattern The iron filings lie in a specific pattern outlining the force of the magnetic field.
reaction The term ’neutralization’ describes any reaction which reduces acidity.
relationship Is there any relationship between your breathing rate and the changes in your pulse rate?
variation Describe how variations in temperature and pH affect enzyme activity.


dependent The rate drying takes place is dependent on temperature, air movement and humidity.
interdependent All living things show variation and are interdependent, interacting with each other and
their environment.

Describing outcome

become Liquids and gases become less dense as they get warmer.
get As conditions get worse and there is less food, aphids reproduce sexually like other animals.
give rise to In some cases, you can actually see or feel the vibrations that give rise to the sounds.
lead to If the concentration of water in the cells is lowered due to loss of water from the body through evaporation and urine, this can lead to complications.

Refer to Your CLIL: Cause and effect: Science for more phrases describing outcome.

Describing circumstances / conditions for change

allow Which materials allow the transfer of heat by convection?
enable Cotton seeds have fine hairs that trap air and enable them to float.
encourage Plant hormones can encourage root growth.
inhibit Hormones in the blood from target glands inhibit the production of the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulated them.
make possible Friction between vehicle tyres and the road surface makes it possible for the vehicle to
go forward.
play a role in The movement of plant roots and animals between rocks can play a role in the breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces.
preserve Techniques developed to prepare and preserve foods include pickling, salting and smoking.
prevent Brushing your teeth to remove plaque helps prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
provide Carbohydrates are required to provide energy both for the mother and the
developing foetus.
regulate The diaphragm is adjusted to regulate the light passing through the camera lens.
stimulate Diuretics stimulate the body to get rid of water and salts by urinating.


condition Sexual reproduction is best in changing conditions, as there will be a variation between
the offspring.


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Change: Science: Lesson plan.


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