Keith Kelly looks at examples of the language of classification from the area of science, covering structures such as verb phrases, noun phrases and linking phrases.
To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.
to classify: Scientists (i) classify sounds which are very loud and which have irregular frequencies as noise.
can be classified as: Water (ii) can be classified as hard or soft.
Note: classify is used (i) as a synonym for define, as well as (ii) for describing division and grouping.
to divide: Mitosis is when the nucleus of a cell divides to create two new nuclei.
can be divided into: The environment can be divided into natural and human environments.
Note 1: Divide is used in both a physical sense where a physical process or a structural division occurs (cells divide) and in a conceptual sense for grouping or separating things and ideas.
Note 2: Groups can also be subdivided or placed into subcategories.
to belong to: Fats and oils both belong to the food group lipids, but while fats are usually solid at room temperature, oils are liquids.
to be associated with: A diet which is high in animal fat is often associated with cardiovascular disease.
Note: the use of the adverb often.
kinds: There are many kinds of atom, but they all have a nucleus and electrons rotating around the nucleus.
types: (i) There are several types of levers, such as a hammer, scissors, a spade and a seesaw.
Note: Items here are grouped with the label types followed by a phrase for giving examples, such as)
(ii) There are two types of frictional forces: static friction is the force preventing stationary objects from moving; moving friction is the force acting to slow down moving objects.
Note: Types are introduced with a colon and the two examples are separated (or listed) using a semi colon.
forms: (i) Electricity may also be produced from other forms of energy such as solar energy, tides and wind.
(ii) There are two forms of digestion: physical digestion which involves the mechanical processes of chewing and churning; chemical digestion which is the use of enzymes to break down food
classes: Name and give examples of the three different classes of levers.
categories: Fuel cells can be divided into five major categories named after the electrolyte used in each of them.
characteristics: The seven main characteristics used to identify living things are: they feed; they grow; they move; they reproduce; they respire; they excrete; they respond to stimuli.
according to: Animal cell shape varies according to the function of the cell.
in terms of: State the conditions for flotation in terms of upthrust and density.
as regards: Metals are good conductors as regards electricity, though silver, copper and gold perform better than others.
with regard to: Consumers (animals) are grouped with regard to their position in a food chain.
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