Number one for English language teachers

Cause and effect: Geography

Type: Word list

Keith Kelly looks at examples of the language of cause and effect from the area of geography, covering verb phrases, noun phrases and connectors, such as adverbs and conjunctions.

To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.

Adverbs and conjunctions


because of: The Southern coast of France attracts tourists because of the hot, dry weather.
owing to: The city is very densely populated, owing to the wide variety of jobs.
due to: Saudi Arabia is far richer due to the sale of its oil.
because: There are also moist winds because they blow from the sea.
as: As the temperature rises, the mercury expands and moves up the tube.
since: People to the east of the factory may be badly affected, since they would normally be upwind of the plant.


therefore: Cod are good to eat and are therefore of high commercial value.
thus: Many female workers thus had twice the burden of longer hours and less pay.
as a result: Waves erode coastal areas as a result of these processes.
thereby: At least one tree is planted when one is chopped down, thereby renewing the natural resources.
then: If material is broken off, then it is carried off down stream.



cause: Compression of rock causes shock waves to spread out from the focus of an earthquake.
result in: This results in heavy leaching, which deprives tree roots devastated by acid of the nutrients they need.
lead to: Describe how plate movements lead to the formation of earthquakes.
be responsible for: Tourism has been largely responsible for development of a new airport and a ski run.
give rise to: Good rainfall and summer heat give rise to prosperous agriculture.
trigger off: Building or quarrying can sometimes trigger off a landslide.
create: Cloudless skies create high daytime temperatures and high pressure.
generate: Running water turns wheels called turbines which generate electricity.


come from: The coffee you buy comes from coffee beans.
result from: What disadvantage may result from these conditions?



cause: Discuss in your group the causes of global warming.
reason: The nearby location of a river was one reason for people to settle here.
origin: Rivers have regularly influenced the origin and development of towns and cities.
source: The proximity of a source of raw materials is an important factor for the location of manufacturing industry.


effect: What does this photograph reveal about the effect of national policy on local industrial development?
consequence: Disease spread quickly as a consequence of poor hygiene.
result: The result is rapid population growth.
by-product: This is a useful by-product at a time of increasing energy demands in the world.
spin-off: This spin-off effect would bring increased prosperity to the wider area.

Rate this resource (5 average user rating)

  • 1 star out of 5
  • 2 stars out of 5
  • 3 stars out of 5
  • 4 stars out of 5
  • 5 stars out of 5

You must be signed in to rate.

  • Share

Readers' comments (1)

  • This resource gave a wider perspective on what I expected on an excercise about this topic. Thank you !!!

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

Have your say

You must sign in to make a comment

sign in register

Powered by Webstructure.NET

Access denied popup