Keith Kelly looks at examples of language used in making conclusions and findings from the area of science, categorized by nouns, verbs, word groups and prepositions.

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result Exchange your results with four other people in your class and compare your findings.
outcome Describe one possible outcome of this change to farming practice.
data Plot a graph of population growth against years, using the data given in the table.
survey Do a survey of your class to find the number of students who have ever had wheezing, allergies, bronchitis, pneumonia or asthma.
evidence The evidencefor diffusion is that the scent can be smelt everywhere in the room a short time after it was sprayed.
survey An EU survey showed that less than 50% of Irish people believe that women are just as capable as men of working as bus drivers, surgeons or members of parliament.
summary Write a summary of weather conditions in the places labelled A, B and D on the satellite photograph.
fact The fact that most animals and plants reproduce sexually suggests that variation in offspring is the most important factor in their ability to cope with changing conditions.
observation Watch the movement of the colour in the water and record all your observations.
statement Make a statement about the general conditions seeds need for germination.
argument Study the following statements and give reasons for and against the arguments.
reasoning Show your reasoning in your answer.
deduction What deduction can you make about the components of urine?


record Apply heat directly under the area where the crystals are and record your observations.
see We can see that asexual reproduction is the result of mitosis and sexual reproduction can only happen after meiosis.
analyze The impulse travels up to the brain, where it is analyzed.
report A spokesperson should report the group’s decision and the reasons for it.
justify Give examples of domestic and biological waste and justify need for safe disposal of waste.
provide Study the data and state whether the conclusions provided are true or false.
conclude We concluded that weather maps are useful because they help farmers plan their harvest
comment on Comment on the density, pattern and function of the settlements.
explain Explain your conclusions with reference to the data given in the table.
discuss Discuss the findings of the report on the use of plastics.
draw What conclusions can you draw about the effect of making malaria medicines more available?
confirm What further experiments could you do to confirm your finding?
means This means that if you have at least one copy of the gene for free ear lobes,your ear lobes will be free.
finally Large rocks are weathered down until, finally, they become soil.
it follows that It follows that blocking the connection between the peripheral nerves and the brain should prevent the pain impulse from reaching the brain.

Word groups

Findings can be scientific and empirical and can be presented as text, graphs or charts. You can also relate conclusions and findings to patterns in your data. You can announce, present, or publish your conclusions or findings.

  • The graph indicates that cases of the disease are increasing.

Please refer to Line graphs: Science for more language in this area.

Your findings can be interpreted, challenged or disputed by others. You can arrive at, come to or reach a conclusion. Your conclusions and findings can be preliminary, logical, reasonable, substantiated or valid.

  • Some researchers disputed this conclusion, arguing that the data were not strong enough.


about Scientific findings about sleep patterns suggest that we can improve the quality of our sleep.
for The database is regularly updated as new findings for children are added.
of The findings of recent research into cardiovascular illness indicated strong links withdiet.
on Scientists recently released their data on the Higgs particle.
in In conclusion, the hypothesis was shown to be correct.


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