Keith Kelly looks at examples of the language of classification in geography, covering structures such as verb phrases, noun phrases and linking phrases.

To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.

verb phrases

to classify: Stone Age people are classified as Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic.
may be classified: The causes of erosion may be classified into two groups: natural erosion and erosion caused by people.

to divide: Geologists divide moraine into three main types: lateral moraine, medial moraine and terminal moraine.
be divided/subdivided into: Deposits include boulders, gravels, sands and clays, and may be subdivided into till and fluvioglacial material. (Note: groups can be subdivided or placed into subcategories)

to belong to: Name the countries and say whether they belong to industrialized, newly industrialized or industrially emergent regions.

to be associated with: Name some of the major features commonly associated with volcanic activity. (Note the adverb commonly used here to mean normally or under normal circumstances)

noun phrases

kinds: Ascending and descending air produce different kinds of weather such as hail, snow and frost. (note the phrase such as for giving the examples)

types: There are two types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. (note the colon followed by the two examples)

forms: Different forms of plant litter such as dead plants and leaves decay to form humus.

classes: An earthquake releases two classes of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves are in turn subdivided into fastest waves and slower waves. (Note the phrase ’are in turn’ which here means ’also’)

categories: Materials that build up to form a delta are classified into three categories: fine particles, coarser materials, sediments of various sizes.

criteria: Explain the criteria that define different areas as distinctive cultural regions.

linking phrases

according to: Soils are usually classified according to climate types that form them.

in terms of: Nucleated settlements can be classified in terms of the services they provide.

as regards: As regards Stone Age people, we now classify populations into Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic.

with regard to: Classify the towns with regard to their population size.


Click link to download and view these files