Keith Kelly looks at examples of the language of cause and effect from the area of geography, covering verb phrases, noun phrases and connectors, such as adverbs and conjunctions.
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Adverbs and conjunctions
because of: The Southern coast of France attracts tourists because of the hot, dry weather.
owing to: The city is very densely populated, owing to the wide variety of jobs.
due to: Saudi Arabia is far richer due to the sale of its oil.
because: There are also moist winds because they blow from the sea.
as: As the temperature rises, the mercury expands and moves up the tube.
since: People to the east of the factory may be badly affected, since they would normally be upwind of the plant.
therefore: Cod are good to eat and are therefore of high commercial value.
thus: Many female workers thus had twice the burden of longer hours and less pay.
as a result: Waves erode coastal areas as a result of these processes.
thereby: At least one tree is planted when one is chopped down, thereby renewing the natural resources.
then: If material is broken off, then it is carried off down stream.
cause: Compression of rock causes shock waves to spread out from the focus of an earthquake.
result in: This results in heavy leaching, which deprives tree roots devastated by acid of the nutrients they need.
lead to: Describe how plate movements lead to the formation of earthquakes.
be responsible for: Tourism has been largely responsible for development of a new airport and a ski run.
give rise to: Good rainfall and summer heat give rise to prosperous agriculture.
trigger off: Building or quarrying can sometimes trigger off a landslide.
create: Cloudless skies create high daytime temperatures and high pressure.
generate: Running water turns wheels called turbines which generate electricity.
come from: The coffee you buy comes from coffee beans.
result from: What disadvantage may result from these conditions?
cause: Discuss in your group the causes of global warming.
reason: The nearby location of a river was one reason for people to settle here.
origin: Rivers have regularly influenced the origin and development of towns and cities.
source: The proximity of a source of raw materials is an important factor for the location of manufacturing industry.
effect: What does this photograph reveal about the effect of national policy on local industrial development?
consequence: Disease spread quickly as a consequence of poor hygiene.
result: The result is rapid population growth.
by-product: This is a useful by-product at a time of increasing energy demands in the world.
spin-off: This spin-off effect would bring increased prosperity to the wider area.
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Cause and effect: Geography