Jim Scrivener looks in detail at a question from Module 2 of the TKT – Lesson planning.
Try this question
For questions 1–6, match the information from a lesson plan with the lesson plan headings listed A–D. Mark the correct letter A–D on your answer sheet. You need to use some options more than once.
Lesson plan headings
A) Lesson aim(s)
C) Aids / Resources
D) Personal aim(s) of the teacher
Information from a lesson plan
1) Copy of audio script (teacher’s book) and coursebook CD or audio file.
2) Tell students to listen a second time and answer the detailed comprehension questions.
3) Give students practise in the subskills of prediction, listening for gist and listening for specific information.
4) Reduce teacher talking time and involve students more, especially when answering questions.
5) Students copy down the new words from the board.
6) Develop fluency skills.
This question tests if you know some of the typical contents of a formal written lesson plan.
What you need to know
There is no single correct format for writing a lesson plan, and teachers do them in many different ways. However, when teachers are required to write a formal lesson plan – for example, prior to an observed lesson – there is some information that typically needs to be included.
Plans are often organised into two main parts: an introductory section and a procedure. The introductory section can give background information about the lesson, for example introducing the context of the lesson (i.e. where and when it happens) and giving information about the class and their previous study. It will usually also include details of lesson aims and the teacher’s personal aims, as well as information about aids and resources needed, and may predict possible problems that might occur in the lesson.
Aids and resources are any things that help you teach. The term includes physical things that you take in to class (such as toys or puppets, flashcards, etc), handouts you give to students, electronic resources (such as websites) and also the material and equipment you use to help you teach (such as a recording script from the teacher’s book, a projector, a whiteboard, a DVD player).
Many trainers would argue that the most important thing to include in the introductory section of a plan is a statement of the main lesson aims (sometimes also called objectives). These are the things that you hope the students will learn or get better at as a result of your lesson. So, lesson aims are not the things that you or your students do in class – but the result of the things you do.
In comparison, the personal aims of the teacher are the things that you want to get better at yourself as a result of teaching the lesson. These might include teaching techniques that you are trying out or personal characteristics that you working on.
The procedure is a description of what the teacher expects will actually happen in the lesson. It is often set out as a step-by-step description of the different stages of the lesson. The teacher notes down both what she will do and what the students will do. Some teachers may write in great detail (for example, including the actual words they plan to use for explanations or instructions). Other teachers may write less, perhaps just including a brief note about what they intend to happen.
So what are the answers?
What else should I study?
You also need to know other sections that might feature in a formal plan: assumptions, class profile, timing, interaction, anticipated language problems, solutions to anticipated problems, timetable fit.
All of the example questions are taken from real TKT sample exams but have been shortened. They are reproduced with the kind permission of University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations.
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TKT Tip 05: Module 2 – Writing a lesson plan