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ESOL beginner lessons: Pronunciation

Level: Starter/beginner Type: Teaching notes

This lesson aims to help students with pronunciation of past tense (-ed) words, adjectives ending in -ed.

  • Time: 40 mins
  • Level: Basic students practising past tense
  • Materials: Worksheet, whiteboard
  • Main focus: Pronunciation of past tense (-ed) words, adjectives ending in -ed
  • Sub-skill: Reading and new vocabulary


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Readers' comments (7)

  • Hi there,

    Thanks for the feedback. The sound produced depends on the final consonant sound of the past simple regular verb. There are two types of consonant: voiced and unvoiced.

    Voiced consonants make sounds using the vibration of your vocal cords when you say them. They are:

    /b/ as in bat
    /?/ as in jam
    /g/ as in girl
    /v/ as in violin
    /ð/ as in the
    /z/ as in zoo
    /?/ as in vision
    /m/ as in mum
    /n/ as in nut
    /?/ as in thing
    /l/ as in like
    /r/ as in red
    /w/ as in water
    /j/ as in you

    If a verb ends with a voiced consonant, it will use the /d/ sound,

    e.g. played, snowed, pulled, cleaned

    Unvoiced consonants are produced without using vibration from the vocal cords. Rather, the sound is produced by the movement of air through the teeth, tongue, and lips. They are:

    /p/ as in pizza
    /?/ as in chip
    /k/ as in cat
    /f/ as in farm
    /?/ as in think
    /s/ as in socks
    /?/ as in ship
    /h/ as in ham

    If a verb ends with an unvoiced consonant, it will use the /t/ sound,

    e.g. kissed, laughed, baked, washed

    The exceptions to this rule are the consonant sounds

    /d/ as in duck
    /t/ as in tomato

    If a verb ends in either of these sounds, the 'ed' ending will produce the extra consonant sound /id/

    e.g. wanted, needed, fainted, landed

    To help your students understand whether a sound is voiced or unvoiced, simply put your hand on your throat when you say the sound. If it is voiced, you will feel a vibration in your throat. If it is unvoiced, you will feel nothing in your throat.

    Hope that helps.
    Best wishes,
    The onestopenglish team

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  • Pleae send the rules for using T and d sound when using "ed" at the end of a word simple past tense

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  • I find that it is best to get learners familiar with the phonetic alphabet as soon as possible. If it is confusing then you should spend time learning it. It makes a huge difference in pronunciation.
    What is more confusing is trying to get learners to memorise the different letter ending rules for 'ed' pron. Just give them one rule 't' and 'd' endings add a syllable /id/. If need be explain voiced as /d/ and unvoiced /t/. Much less confusing. Aslo just get them to try to say things by using the wrong endings like: want with a /d/ , like with a /d/ , stay with a /t/ etc. They will soon see that actually it is a quite natural sound.
    I think students just get too many rules and not enough communication practice.

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  • ok. i got it .i think at that time the server was nt responding so it didnt open.thanks for the prompt reply

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  • I'm sorry you're having problems viewing the lesson. If you click on the attachment under the 'Related resources' heading, the file should open.
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  • Ditto! How do you see the lesson plans??

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  • How does one actually see the lesson plan??????

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