Number one for English language teachers

Conclusions and findings: Science

Type: Word list

Keith Kelly looks at examples of language used in making conclusions and findings from the area of science, categorized by nouns, verbs, word groups and prepositions.

To download the accompanying lesson plan, please click on the link to the right of the screen.

Nouns

wordexample
resultExchange your results with four other people in your class and compare your findings.
outcomeDescribe one possible outcome of this change to farming practice.
dataPlot a graph of population growth against years, using the data given in the table.
surveyDo a survey of your class to find the number of students who have ever had wheezing, allergies, bronchitis, pneumonia or asthma.
evidenceThe evidencefor diffusion is that the scent can be smelt everywhere in the room a short time after it was sprayed.
surveyAn EU survey showed that less than 50% of Irish people believe that women are just as capable as men of working as bus drivers, surgeons or members of parliament.
summaryWrite a summary of weather conditions in the places labelled A, B and D on the satellite photograph.
factThe fact that most animals and plants reproduce sexually suggests that variation in offspring is the most important factor in their ability to cope with changing conditions.
observationWatch the movement of the colour in the water and record all your observations.
statementMake a statement about the general conditions seeds need for germination.
argumentStudy the following statements and give reasons for and against the arguments.
reasoningShow your reasoning in your answer.
deductionWhat deduction can you make about the components of urine?


Verbs

wordexample
recordApply heat directly under the area where the crystals are and record your observations.
seeWe can see that asexual reproduction is the result of mitosis and sexual reproduction can only happen after meiosis.
analyzeThe impulse travels up to the brain, where it is analyzed.
reportA spokesperson should report the group’s decision and the reasons for it.
justifyGive examples of domestic and biological waste and justify need for safe disposal of waste.
provideStudy the data and state whether the conclusions provided are true or false.
concludeWe concluded that weather maps are useful because they help farmers plan their harvest
comment onComment on the density, pattern and function of the settlements.
explainExplain your conclusions with reference to the data given in the table.
discussDiscuss the findings of the report on the use of plastics.
drawWhat conclusions can you draw about the effect of making malaria medicines more available?
confirmWhat further experiments could you do to confirm your finding?
meansThis means that if you have at least one copy of the gene for free ear lobes,your ear lobes will be free.
finallyLarge rocks are weathered down until, finally, they become soil.
it follows thatIt follows that blocking the connection between the peripheral nerves and the brain should prevent the pain impulse from reaching the brain.


Word groups

Findings can be scientific and empirical and can be presented as text, graphs or charts. You can also relate conclusions and findings to patterns in your data. You can announce, present, or publish your conclusions or findings.

  • The graph indicates that cases of the disease are increasing.

Please refer to Line graphs: Science for more language in this area.

Your findings can be interpreted, challenged or disputed by others. You can arrive at, come to or reach a conclusion. Your conclusions and findings can be preliminary, logical, reasonable, substantiated or valid.

  • Some researchers disputed this conclusion, arguing that the data were not strong enough.


Prepositions

wordexample
aboutScientific findings about sleep patterns suggest that we can improve the quality of our sleep.
forThe database is regularly updated as new findings for children are added.
ofThe findings of recent research into cardiovascular illness indicated strong links withdiet.
onScientists recently released their data on the Higgs particle.
inIn conclusion, the hypothesis was shown to be correct.

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