Cause and effect: Science
Keith Kelly looks at examples of the language of cause and effect from the area of science, covering verb phrases, noun phrases and connectors, such as adverbs and conjunctions.
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Adverbs and conjunctions
because of: Water moves up the xylem vessels because of three factors: root pressure, capillary action and transpiration.
due to: The pumping action of the heart is due to regular contractions of the cardiac muscle.
because: Cross-pollination produces greater variety in offspring because it involves two parents.
as: As animals visit flowers for nectar, they collect pollen on their body and this is transferred to other flowers they visit.
since: Mercury can be used to measure very high temperatures since it boils at 365°C.
therefore: There is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood, therefore the oxygen diffuses from the lung to the blood.
thus: Pneumonia can develop from a simple viral cold or influenza, which causes excess production of mucus thus encouraging bacterial growth.
hence: The reaction is the force exerted by the gas on the engine and hence, the plane.
as a result: These gases dissolve in the rainwater and, as a result, acids are formed which fall as acid rain.
then: If the acid fizzes then it is limestone.
cause: Some minerals can cause problems if too much is eaten.
result in: This results in objects that are far away being seen clearly and near objects being blurred.
lead to: The rupture of the eardrum may lead to permanent deafness.
be responsible for: Identify digestive enzymes which are responsible for the breakdown of food you have eaten.
bring about: Changes in mass may also bring about energy changes.
give rise to: The stem produces buds at the top, which give rise to the new shoots in warm, rainy periods.
come from: The energy needed for turning a turbine comes from moving water or steam.
result from: Obesity results from eating food containing more energy than the body uses.
arise from: The centripetal force arises from the sideways friction between the tyres and the road.
cause: Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and the cause of many deaths each year.
reason: There may be an environmental reason for this, such as drought or crop disease.
source: Electric circuits need a source of electricity, such as a battery or mains electricity.
effect: Make an electromagnet and observe the effect of current on its strength.
result: In some plants this is the result of growth.
outcome: Make a Punnett square to show the possible outcome of offspring having tongue-rolling traits.
product: Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration.